- Category: Art
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The Saros cycle is made up of 19 eclipse years of 364.62 days whilst the Metonic cycle is made up of 19 solar years of 365.2422 days. This unusually small number of years, NINETEEN, arises because of a close coupling of most of the major parameters of the Earth-Sun-Moon system which acts as a discrete system, a system also commensurate with Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Venus. It is this type of coherent cyclicity which lies at the centre of what the megalithic were able to achieve through day-inch or similar counting of visible time periods and comparing of counts using geometric means. [see my books, especially Sacred Number and the Lords of Time, for a fuller discussion].
It would have been relatively easy for megaithic astronomy to notice that eclipses occur in slots separated by eclipse seasons of 173.3 days and also to see that the difference between lunar and solar years resolves over the 19 year of the Metonic so that lunar orbits, lunar months, the starry sky and the rotation of the earth provide a close repetition of alignments over 19 solar years which equal 235 lunar months and 254 lunar orbits. The Saros period is 223 lunar months long and is therefore one lunar year of 12 months short of the Metonic of 235 lunar months.
The situation in the last year of the Metonic is therefore identical but (symmetrically) in-reverse to the first year, on a continuous but discrete basis [that is, providing you start counting on an eclipse]. The Saros then ends12 months before the Metonic so that the Saros is 18 solar years long plus, quite closely, the 10.8 day difference between the lunar and solar years. This phenomenon is clearly presented on Gavrinis' stone R8, in the middle "register", such engraved art at Gavrinis dividing their stone pallettes into different elements of a related summary of astronomical phenomena seen through the tools of a megalithic science involving counting, alignment, geometry, and metrology.
A section of Gavrinis Stone R8 clearly shows the Saros and Metonic Cycles
as ending between 18 and 19 years less the difference between the lunar and solar years
- Category: Art
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This article explores the use of axe motifs within a form of carved schematic art unique to the megalithic monuments near Carnac, southern Brittany, France.
A diagram found on the underside of the capstone of a chambered dolmen called Kercado (see figure 1) appears to hold metrological and astronomical meanings. Classified as a type of AXE, local axe motifs are said to have three distinct forms (a) triangular blades, (b) hafted axes and (c) the Mane Ruthual type [Twohig, 1981].
Types b and c are often found in the singular on the undersides to roof slabs and in the case of form (b), the hafted axe, I have attributed its display below the roof slab of Table des Marchands at Locmariaquer (inset right) as being used to represent the north pole between 5000 and 4000 BC, at a time when there was no star near to the pole itself. The abstract point of the north pole, the rotational axis of the earth, is shown as a loop attached to the base of the axe haft, whilst the axe head then represented a chosen circumpolar star, as this rotates counter-clockwise in the northern sky, at the fixed distance of the haft from the pole itself. Note how compatible this idea of an axe ploughing the northern skies is to our own circumpolar constellation, The Plough. Note also that the eastern horizon moves through the equatorial stars at the same angular rate as the marker star moves around the north pole.
Figure 1 The Kercado Axe Diagram (E.S. Twohig, 1981)
- Category: Measures
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These are some sections I prepared for the (contested) Megalithic Yard page on Wikipedia. This is part of an effort to defend the historical development of this measure (first proposed by Alexander Thom) from scientific attempts to "airbrush it out of history", along with Thom's role in surveying Britain's monuments for posterity.
Firstly, the arguments for a geometrical origin need to be presented and I have placed this on the Wikipedia page today.
Secondly, I cannot add my own contribution, with Robin Heath, in which the megalithic yard is seen as likely to be derived from a differential day count between three solar and three lunar years, conducted in one inch per day and evident in the Quadrilateral at Le Manio.
Thirdly, Colin Renfrew's 2010 compendium on measure within archaeology has an article in which Japanese researcher Saburo Sugiyama, after decades of working with new survey data, has found a unit identical to the megalithic yard [83cm], at the city of Teotihuacan in the Mexico Basin, called a TMU or Teotihuachan measurement unit. It is quite typical for such work to not research old world historical metrology since there is a scientific ban on theories that Amerindian traditions might have derived partly through ideas from both the Pacific Asian and Atlantic European systems of ocean currents and prevailing winds.
Arguments for a Geometric Derivation
Some commentators upon Thom's megalithic yard (John Ivimy and then Euan Mackie) have noted how such a measure could relate to geometrical ideas found historically in two Egyptian metrological units; the remen of about 1.2 feet and royal cubit of about 1.72 feet. The remen and royal cubit were used to define land areas in Egypt: "On documentary and other evidence Griffith came to the conclusion that the square on the royal cubit was intended to be twice that the square on the remen; and Petri identified the remen as a length of 20 digits" .
Explains how some have derived Thom's
Megalithic Yard unit of measure
from metrological land measure relationships
established historically in Egypt's Dynastic periods
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