Greece

This paper concerns itself with a unique fired clay disk found by Luigi Pernier in 1908 within the "palace" of Phaistos (aka Faistos) Called the Phaistos Disk, its purpose or meaning has been interpreted many times, largely seen as either (a) a double-sided textual momento in the repeated form of a spiral and outer circle written using an unknown pictographic language stamped in the clay or (b) as an astronomical device, a record or handy reference. We provide a calendric interpretation based on the simplest lunar calendars known to apply in Minoan times, finding the Disc to be (a) an elegant solution to predicting repeated eclipses within the Saros period and (b) an observation that the Metonic is just one lunar year longer, and true to the context of the Minoan culture of that period. [also as pdf]

Phaistos Composite

Figure 1. The location of Phaistos Palace atop a commanding hill in the middle of the fertile Massara valley in southern Crete. The Phaistos Disk was discovered in 1908 in chamber 8 of the northeast wing of the "Old Palace" (pre 1700 BCE) as per above diagram inserted from Balistier, 2000, 5.

As Greece began to develop the notion of a Polis (or people), temple design went from using small dedicated buildings to creating, in the first Heraion, on Samos, the first Hecatompedos or hundred footer, whose walled room's only entrance faced east. Its axis was 14 degrees south of east, an angle familiar as that of the diagonal of a four-square rectangle, whose diagonal stands in relation to the four-square base as being the solar year relative to the lunar year. At the western end we believe there stood a statue of Hera, wife of Zeus, after whom the monument is named. Herwit's excellent The Art and Culture of Early Greece 1100-480 B.C. shows the monument's early evolution with a plan indicating the most likely metrology for the monument was of 100 common Egyptian feet of 48/49 feet (0.9788) which gives 36 megalithic yards of 2.72 feet along the axis. The diagonal is then 37.1 megalithic yards long so that these two lengths show exactly the sort of count found at the Le Manio Quadrilateral in southern Brittany. This is summarised in the diagram below:

Heraion of Samos LunationTriangle RDHeath Sept2016

Figure 1 The Interpretation of the Cella of the Peristyle Heraion