Brittany in West France has a remarkable number of megalithic monuments but in the South an area of great concentration near the town of Carnac. Analysis of these contributed greatly to Sacred Number and the Lords of Time as demonstrating numerical counting of days within monuments which, combined with multiple square geometries, indicates an advanced megalithic science there in the fifth millennium BC. Day inch counting would have enabled the harmonic structure of synodic time to have been discovered just as the neolithic civilisations of the fourth millennium arose, especially in the ancient near east.

Table des Marchands, a dolmen at Lochmariaquer, can explain how the Megalithic came to factorise 945 days as 32 lunar months, by looking at the properties of the numbers three, four and five. At that latitude, the solstice angle of the sun on the horizon shone along the 5-side of a 3-4-5 triangle to east and west, seen clearly at the Crucuno Rectangle. But in the dolmen's carving these numbers could have been put to another good use.

Before numbers were individually notated (as with our 3, 4 and 5 rather than |||, |||| and |||||) and given positional notation (like our decimal seen in 945 and 27), numbers were lengths or marks and, when marks are compared to accurately measured lengths measured out in inches, feet, yards, etc. then each vertical mark would naturally have represented a single unit of length. This has not been appreciated as having been behind marks like the cuneiform for ONE; that it probably meant "one unit of length".

Locmariaquer Table des Marchand interieur 600

Figure 1 The end and cap stone inside the dolmen Table des Marchands in which the elementary numbers in columns and rows perhaps inspired its local attribution to the accounts of merchants

In the carvings of the end stone (C4) of Table des Marchands, groups of crook shaped lines were created in which the crooks point away from the central axis of a stone whose top section is an oblate isosclese ("equal legged") triangle whose base angles are 60 degrees, within which the array of grouped crooks appear. The outer oblate edges are carved in a grooved border which looks like a long count. Below the triangular section is a rectangular panel of detailed drawings and/or symbols whose meaning is now probably lost forever.

In the previous article, the 7,500 foot-long Erdevan alignments were seen to have been a long count of the Saros period of 19 eclipse years versus the distance to Mane Groh dolmen of 19 solar years, this probably conceptualised as an 18-19-6 near-Pythagorean triangle, whose inner angle is the bearing from east of Mané Groh. However, the path directly east caused the actual alignments, counting the Saros, to veer south to miss the hill of Mané Bras.

It has been remarked that the form of the northern alignments of Edeven were similar to those starting at Le Menec's egg-shaped stone circle 4.25 miles away, at a bearing 45 degrees southeast. Whilst huge gaps have been caused in those of Edeven by agriculture, the iconic Le Menec alignments seem to have fared better than the alignments of Kermario, Kerlescan and Petit Menec which follow it east, these being known as the Carnac Alignments above the town of that name.

One similarity between alignments is the idea of starting and terminating them with ancillary structures such as cromlechs (stone kerb monuments), such as the Le Menec egg and, despite road incursion, a 3-4-5 structure similar to Crucuno, aligned to the midsummer sunset by a length 235 feet long. This is the number of lunar months in the 19 year Metonic period and is factored 5 times 47. Another similarity may be seen in Cambray's 1805 drawing of these Kerzerho alignments, at the head of ten stone rows marching east (figure 1).

Erdeven1805byCambry clean 600

Figure 1 Cambrey's 1805 engraving of Kerzerho's western extremity of the Erdeven alignments showing the stone rows now lost to agriculture.

team 017The word Alignment is used in France to describe its stone rows. Their interpretation has been various, from being an army turned to stone (a local myth) to their use like graph paper, for extrapolation of values (Thom). That stone rows were alignments to horizon events gives a partial but useful explanation, since menhirs (or standing stones) do form a web of horizon alignments to solstice sun and to the moon's extreme rising and setting event, at maximum and minimum standstill. At Carnac the solstice sun was aligned to the diagonal of the 4 by 3 rectangle and maximum and minimum standstill moon aligned to the diagonal of a single or double square, respectively.

It seems quite clear today that stone rows at least represented the counting of important astronomical time periods. We have seen at Crocuno that eclipse periods, exceeding the solar year, are accompanied by some rectalinear structures (Le Manio, Crucuno, Kerzerho) which embody counting in miniature, as if to record it, and it has been observed that cromlechs (or large stone kerb monuments) were built at the ends of the long stone rows of Carnac and Erdeven. Sometimes, a cromlech initiated a longer count, with or without stone rows, that ended with a rectangle (Crucuno). The focus on counting time naturally reveals a vernacular quite unique to this region and epoch. We have seen that the Kerzerho alignments were at least a 4 by 3 rectangle which recorded the 235 lunar months in feet along its diagonal to midsummer solstice sunset. After that rectangle there follows a massive Alignment of stone rows to the east, ending after 2.3 km having gradually changed their bearing to 15 degrees south of east. Just above the alignments lies a hillock with multiple dolmens and a north-south stone row (Mané Braz) whilst below its eastern extremity lies the tumulus and dolmen, "T-shaped passage-grave" (Burl. 196) called Mané Groh. 


In 1973, Alexander Thom found the Crucuno rectangle to have been "accurately placed east and west" by its megalithic builders, and "built round a rectangle 30 MY [megalithic yards] by 40 MY" and that "only at the latitude of Crucuno could the diagonals of a 3, 4, 5 rectangle indicate at both solstices the azimuth of the sun rising and setting when it appears to rest on the horizon." In a recent article I found metrology was used between the Crucuno dolmen (within Crucuno) and the rectangle in the east to count 47 lunar months, since this closely approximates 4 eclipse years (of 346.62 days) which is the shortest eclipse prediction period available to early astronomers.

Crucuno Rectangle 3 4 5

Figure 1 Two key features of Crucuno's Rectangle

The megalithic viewed time, like the time-counts they made, as a line; whilst the circle of the horizon, and the events upon it, was viewed as a cyclic domain of "eternity". The line and the circle presented in monuments as counted lengths and alignments to key events appear harmonised in the Crucuno rectangle in which the southern stones extend the 4 by 3 rectangle implied by solstice sun events on the horizon aligned to its diagonals. The southern stones change the north south dimension of the rectangle from 3 units to 22/7 = 3 plus 1/7th units.

TimeandEternity Circle2

Figure 1 left: The countable line of time seen on the circle of eternal events right: transposed into the rectangle at Crucuno

The 22/7 value approximates π (Pi) at around 3.14 quite well (about one part in 2500), and π needs approximation since (a) its fractional part is indefinitely extensive whilst (b) the megalithic only used rational fractions like 22/7. In previous articles I have developed the term Proximation in explaining how skilled the megalithic were at approaching otherwise impossible problems given their simple use of numbers as lengths. Lengths in the real world are measured in specific units of measure and this duality of unit and measurement enabled changes of units, themselves rational to one another, to create alternative measures of the same thing hence inventing metrology as a calculational device. Since Pi is irrational, transfinite and unmeasurable, in how circles relate to their radius (or diameter), then the megalithic developed many approximations to Pi and even combined them to good effect within the micro-variations of their rationally connected modules of units, their growing "tool kit" of measures and geometrical methods. I noted in a previous article that: the square of equal perimeter to the circle, made by the rectangle's 4 side as diameter, contains 125 megalithic yards that are 176/175 larger than the 40 x 2.7 foot Drusian steps (a.k.a. megalithic yards) of the diameter - hence relating the diameter's straight line to its circumference, maintaining an integer measurement of both in slightly different units. This can only be achieved using two Proximations to Pi which can "bracket" the irrational using two rational approximations. By seeing how this was achieved, the guiding principles behind ancient metrology become clearer, especially regarding the microvariations within its modules, and Crucuno is the perfect exemplar of metrological cunning.