Here we continue (from a previous article) to study the Kaaba, spiritual centre of Islam, from the point of view of megalithic science and sacred geometry. We will restrict ourselves to considering the astronomy. The word considering (derived from sidereal), harks back to a past world view in which the movements of stars were considered by naked-eye astronomers to hold religious meaning, religion meaning to "re-connect" to a spiritual world and consider "an inspection of the stars" for their meaning.

An Unexpected Geometry

The part of Abraham's story beyond that recorded in the Bible involves Ishmael and his mother Hagar, after they were sent away. Abraham visits and has Ishmael build a second Kaaba where an original had once stood, created by God when he created Adam. The description of this second Kaaba is four side lengths (see figure below) given in a unit of measure called the ell [see Esin, Emil. Mecca the Blessed, Madinah the Radiant. London:Elek Books, 1963. 15-22.]. The below graphic integrates this story of a dimensional monument with the northerly maximum moonrise at maximum standstill. 

Kaaba Foundations

The curved side is hence radius 14 ells since 22/11 x 7 = 14, a piece of sacred geometrical lore.The arc is slightly more than 22 but is modelled then by 22/7 as PI. (This curve is aligned to moonset in the south west at maximum standstill rather than, as the Hatim, aligned towards the northern pole of the lunar orbit at its northerly rising and southerly setting, at maximum standstill.)

A Metrology for the Ell

If two 13-month-years of day-inch counting equals 18.618 ells then 767.79 day-inches divided by 18.618 = 41.239 inches = 3.4366 feet = 24/7 feet x 176/175 441/440 - the standard royal yard used at the Royal Tombs at Thebes*. Please note correction.

* quoted Neal, John. All Done With Mirrors. London: Secret Academy, 2001. referencing Clark and Engelback. Ancient Egyptian construction and architecture. New York: Dover Publications, 1990. original: Oxford University Press, 1930..The ratio 440 to 441 is that found between the polar radius of the Earth and its mean (or spherical) radius. There is good evidence that the mean radius was considered representative of the sacred earth and used within sacred architecture to signify a belonging to that earth. Perhaps more interesting is that two 13 month years divide by the nodal ratio 18.618 to give a standard royal yard.

The Ell could have been a standard royal yard, perhaps from southern Egypt, and 18.618 ell in equalling 26 lunar months could relate to YHWH's Hebrew gematria of summing to 26. And whilst the ell might also have the simultaneous meaning of standing for 1 year of the moon's nodal period, the lengths quoted for the sides of the Kaaba sum in a way pointing to the primary eclipse cycle now called the Saros, to which we first turn.

Counting the Saros eclipse period

Adding 20 + 22 + 32 + 37 produces 111 (= 3 x 37) and as we know from previous articles () the Saros period counted in lunar months is 223 lunar months = 111 + 111 + 1 months long. And in Gavrinis, stone L9 appears to use the symbol like a carrot as a counter of the 37 lunar months in three solar (or possibly 364-day Saturnian) years. three times 37 is 111 so that a common factor might be found between Gavrinis' stone L9, the Phaistos disk and the mythical Kaaba. Certainly, this idea of counting 223 using 111 and its factor 37 seems to show that keeping track of counting the Saros was easily achievable by counting the lunar months already primary to the Semitic calendar. There seems no objection to it having been employed prior other timekeeping methods yet delivering a sophisticated result: reliable Eclipse Prediction.

Symbolising the Nodal period

The orbit of the moon crosses the sun's path (called the ecliptic) twice every orbit at two nodes. When the sun is at one of the nodes, an eclipse of the moon is likely and or the sun possible. But the moon's nodes move backwards (retrograde) with respect to planetary motion (east to west), so that eclipse nodes travel backwards in the year. It takes the sun an eclipse year (346.62 days) to cross the same node again and half that to reach the other node, but the nodes reach the same point in the stars after 18.618 solar years, this because the nodes move 1/18.618 DAYS of solar motion every day. 

Resolving a number like 18.618 days or years is difficult when one has no fractions. However nature is kind in giving almost exactly 6800 days to that period so that one could count that number in various ways at megalithic monuments such as Thornborough Henge, the Stonehenge Aubrey Circle and Le Menec's Western Cromlech in Carnac. But here, if 18.618 stands for years in the nodal period then this proto-Kaaba triangle of long sides 32:37 resolves the number quite well (18.574) as a symbol for the nodal period that the Kaaba noted in its alignments, especially to the north eastern moon rise maximum standstill.

There is then a quirk well known to my brother and myself regarding the Precession of the Equinoxes: that 18.618 can be seen as one side of a cube whereupon the volume of the cube (then in year-ells) would equal 6453 solar years and this is a precessional season, that is one quarter of the precessional period is taken to be 25814 years. Given that precession as a period cannot be quantified except based upon what it appears to be today and predictions of solar system forces of many millennia, then this is a very adequate quarter, within 30-50 years of most modern estimates.

Given that each Abrahamic religion was granted its own perspective upon the God Abraham first saw, the mysticism of Islam in particular might have been influenced by a renewed historical context, this time embracing a long and hoary process of human spiritualisation known to pre-literate, oral cultures who remembered themselves through recitation. Islam appears to have inherited from the Kaaba aspects of its original intended meanings whilst becoming Islam's spiritual axis.