Named people which articles on this site are likely to refer, providing resources for understanding who they are or were, what they wrote or said and any other media for finding more information about them.

AlexanderThomSee also which opens: Alexander "Sandy" Thom (26 March 1894 – 7 November 1985) was a Scottish engineer most famous for his theory of the Megalithic yard, categorization of stone circles and his studies of Stonehenge and other archaeological sites." Robin Heath recently wrote a book describing Thom's major contribution to the notion of a megalithic science:  . Alexander Thom: Cracking the Stone Age Code. Bluestone Press (May 2003). ISBN978-0-9526151-4-9.


Alexander Thom undertook a pioneering survey of British stone circles between 1934 and his death in 1985 and this in itself has created a unique archive of site plans without which the megalithic heritage of britain would never have been properly recorded as a whole, by British archaeologists. However, his ideas about the megalithic, emerging from this work, have generated controversy not least because he felt that the megalithic monuments showed clear evidence of a megalithic science.

His main ideas were quite revolutionary concerning the megalithic science, and these can be stated as,

  1. That alignments exist to known astronomical events on the horizon, between points of observation, intermediate features and distant horizon features, these features being distinct through having been created as megaliths or, whilst natural, yet apparently chosen as part of an alignment. 
  2. That the megalithic monuments often contain an implicit architectural unit of length used in their construction, especially within the stone circle geometries.
  3. That british stone circles can be seen to involve simple circles as well as ellipses, flattened circles, enlarged circles (eggs), double circles, which seems to have been achieved geometrically using methods distributed over a large area of Britain.

His work triggered various responses from the scientific establishment, initially positive as well as negative. Events have conspired to create a confused mixture of individual responses which by being referenced add up to a rejection of Thom's work. The subject now only belongs to the history of science because it shows how science is defined by a scientific establishment whose opinions and preferences define what they consider to be scientific. This aspect of systems was proved mathematically by Kurt Godel "one of the most significant logicians in history". His Incompleteness Theorum showed: 

  1. If the system is consistent, it cannot be complete.
  2. The consistency of the axioms cannot be proven within the system.


One doubts that science, as practiced, is consistent despite the fact the system of science is considered consistent by scientists. It is left to historians of science to know otherwise, once the nay sayers and proponents are dead..

John NealJohn Neal is Britain's great metrologer who, alongside John Michell, brought about a resolution of the ancient system underlying Historical Metrology, a subject plagued by misunderstood irregularies and peculiar interrelationships between different historical feet, the latter often involving the low numerical ratios, such five to six. Neal saw that the northern and southern variations of the same historical measures of 176/175 was part of a larger grid employing also the lesser ratio of 441/440 (the ratio of the polar radius to the mean earth radius), which creates an array of microvariation many of which being historically attested and each having multiple uses as geometrical and geodetic ratios such as in quadrature and the length of latitudinal degrees, for example. His first book in 2000 (All Done With Mirrors) was massive in scope and challenging to digest: as John says, he reads metrology with a calculator in his hand - suggesting one has to do calculations to verify and hence understand. John's work includes many essays and pamphlets and these and some new work is currently being published in three volumes (Ancient Metrology Series) of which two are now available. Here is an impromptu conversation with John taken at Stonehenge at Solstice:

Robin at Dolmen Llech y Drybedd 540Robin's website is at

Robin has at least two book projects on the go,

  • one concerning research into the use of geometries first seen in the megalithic by the Celtic Church's and
  • second, his local discovery of the precursor of Stonehenge in the Preseli mountains (release date 19th October)

Bluestone Press


2016: Temple in the Hills

2014: Proto STONEHENGE in Wales

2010: Bluestone Magic

2007: Alexander Thom: Cracking the Stone Age Code

2004: The Measure of Albion: Lost Science of Prehistoric Britain

1998: Sun, Moon and Stonehenge

Wooden Books

2000: Stonehenge (a Wooden Book)

1999: Sun, Moon and Earth (a Wooden Book)

Hodder & Stoughton

1999: Stone Circles - A Beginner's Guide


Independent researcher of the megalithic and resident in Plouharnel, near Carnac, for many decades. Crowhurst runs a megalithic museum near to his home. His work on nearby megaliths began in a local association (AAK) for megalithic studies which published many magazines using a multi-cultural methodology from around the ancient world to resolve the unique forms presented by megalithic monuments and especially unique engraved stones of Gavrinis. Crowhurst continued his own interests after the group's dissolution, taking forward some of its ideas and conducting tours, under the auspices of ACEM, a new local study group.

Historical Note

The AAK found that sites around Carnac could be understood using multiple squares, whose diagonals coincided with lunar and solar maxima on the horizon, at that latitude, but the diagonal angles of these squares nest so enabling then to be stacked (in the angular sense) over a small selection of (at least) 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 13 multiple squares. Robin Heath's "lunation triangle" is half of a four-square triangle, thus linking time models since also the triple square approximates the eclipse year to solar and solar to 13 lunar month year. A third factor was my linking of time-factored triangles to day-inch counting, which appears to have been innovated by Carnac's megalith builders (in the absence of any other evidence earlier than 4500-4000BCE). Crowhurst's continuation and development of AAK's work by Crowhurst has enabled the metrology of the later megalithic, in the British Isles, to be better understood as to its origins in the inch, foot and megalithic yard which is naturally generated by the four-square geometry.

in Print

Megalithes (In French) (2007) out of print

Carnac, The Alignments (2011)

The use of multiple squares for sacred architecture is clear in Egyptian Pharaonic grids, Indian temple building, Greek temple design and the Gothic; Carnac, The Alignments (2011) uses multiple squares as a landscape surveying technique forms an interesting guide also to Carnac's Alignments and their many surrounding megalithic structures. You can view a 2004 film made of a DuVersity tour facilitated by Howard in 2004, focussed on the chambered tomb of Gavrinis and Locmariaqer complex.

on the Web

Google Site:

ACEM Events:

You can view a 2004 film made of a DuVersity tour facilitated by Howard in 2004, focussed on the chambered tomb of Gavrinis.