Monuments emerged from pre-history from which times the tools and techniques developed into the historical period. The articles in this section represent some some work done to interpret monuments over the last few years to support the view that academia has underestimated the technical competence, scope and historical resiliance of the monument builders.

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Stone circles in Britain marked a move away from henges of circular banks and ditches. They were only widely surveyed for the first time by Alexander Thom and some of his surveys are provided here. Thom's geometrical ideas for these circles, whilst still contested, provide clear evidence of advanced horizon astronomy, "sacred" geometry and landscape geodesy often linking sites. Arguments as to whether ropes were used or whether alignments really existed prove fatuous unless based on efforts to understand such ancient skills without prejudice.

My attempts to interpret megalithic monuments (see also post-megalithic monuments). Such monuments were often linked together on the landscape to form greater landforms (as I call them) such as those found near Carnac, Stonehenge, and Orkney.